Section 2.2: Problem 9 Solution
Working problems is a crucial part of learning mathematics. No one can learn... merely by poring over the definitions, theorems, and examples that are worked out in the text. One must work part of it out for oneself. To provide that opportunity is the purpose of the exercises.
James R. Munkres
Assume that the language has equality and a two-place predicate symbol . For each of the following conditions, find a sentence such that the structure is a model of iff the condition is met.
(a) has exactly two members.
(b) is a function from into . (A function is a single-valued relation, as in Chapter 0. For to be a function from into , the domain of must be all of ; the range of is a subset, not necessarily proper, of .)
(c) is a permutation of ; i.e., is a one-to-one function with domain and range equal to .
(a) (there are at least two elements and among any three elements there is a pair of equal elements).
(b) ( and is single-valued).
(c) ( and and is single-valued and is injective).