# Section 1.3: Problem 1 Solution

Working problems is a crucial part of learning mathematics. No one can learn... merely by poring over the definitions, theorems, and examples that are worked out in the text. One must work part of it out for oneself. To provide that opportunity is the purpose of the exercises.
James R. Munkres
Rewrite the tautologies in the “selected list” at the end of Section 1.2, but using the conventions of the present section to minimize the number of parentheses.
Selected list of tautologies.
1. Associative and commutative laws for , , :
for , ,
for , .
2. Distributive laws:
.
.
3. Negation:
.
.
.
De Morgan’s laws:
.
.
4. Other
Excluded middle: .